- present participle of discount
In finance and economics, discounting is the process of finding the present value of an amount of cash at some future date, and along with compounding cash forms the basis of time value of money calculations. The discounted value of a cash flow is determined by reducing its value by the appropriate discount rate for each unit of time between the time when the cashflow is to be valued to the time of the cash flow. Most often the discount rate is expressed as an annual rate.
ExampleTo calculate the present value of a single cash flow, it is divided by one plus the interest rate for each period of time that will pass. This is expressed mathematically as raising the divisor to the power of the number of units of time.
Consider the task to find the present value PV of $100 that will be received in five years. The question is what the present value of this future transaction is. Or equivalently, which amount of money will grow to $100 in five years when subject to a constant discount rate?
Assuming a 12% per year interest rate it follows
- =\frac=56.74 $.
Discount rateThe discount rate which is used in financial calculations is usually chosen to be equal to the cost of capital. Some adjustment may be made to the discount rate to take account of risks associated with uncertain cashflows, with other developments.
The discount rates typically applied to different types of companies show significant differences:
- Startups seeking money: 50 – 100 %
- Early Startups: 40 – 60 %
- Late Startups: 30 – 50%
- Mature Companies: 10 – 25%
Reason for high discount rates for startups:
- Reduced marketability of ownerships because stocks are not traded publicly
- Limited number of investors willing to invest
- Startups face high risks
- Over optimistic forecasts by enthusiastic founders.
One method that looks into a correct discount rate is the capital asset pricing model. This model takes in account three variables that make up the discount rate:
1. Risk Free Rate: The percentage of return generated by investing in risk free securities such as government bonds.
2. Beta: The measurement of how a company’s stock price reacts to a change in the market. A beta higher than 1 means that a change in share price is exaggerated compared to the rest of shares in the same market. A beta less than 1 means that the share is stable and not very responsive to changes in the market. Less than 0 means that a share is moving in the opposite of the market change.
3. Equity Market Risk Premium: The return on investment that investors require above the risk free rate.
Discount rate= risk free rate + beta*(equity market risk premium)
Discount factorThe discount factor, P(T), is the number which a future cash flow, to be received at time T, must be multiplied by in order to obtain the current present value. Thus for a fixed annually compounded discount rate we have
- P(T) = \frac
For fixed continuously compounded discount rate we have
- P(T) = e^ \,
Other discountsFor discounts in marketing, see discounts and allowances, sales promotion, and pricing.
discounting in German: Abzinsung
discounting in Spanish: Descuento
discounting in French: Actualisation
discounting in Dutch: rente
discounting in Italian: sconto
discounting in Japanese: 割引
discounting in Chinese: 贴现
discounting in Polish: Dyskonto
discounting in Russian: Дисконтирование
discounting in Finnish: Diskonttaus
discounting in Swedish: Diskontera
discounting in Vietnamese: Chiết khấu
discounting in Ukrainian: Дискаунт